These translations all connote some form of energy (although this is not the only source for “effort”). This is the conventional Western translation of the Eastern concept, and although it becomes a bit wearing on repeated exposure, I admit I cannot come up with a better option.


What makes it particularly irksome to me is that I was a physics major in college. Trying to answer lay physics questions is a lot harder when people consistently conflate the Eastern philosophical concept with the scientific one…